目前台灣所施打的預防針中預防的疾病有以下幾種
犬瘟熱(Canine Distemper) 犬傳染性肝炎(Infectious Canine Hepatitis) 犬傳染性支氣管炎(Infectious Tracheobronchitis) 犬小病毒腸炎(Canine Parvovirus Enteritis) 犬鉤端螺旋體症(Canine Leptospirosis) 犬鉤端螺旋體出血性黃疸(Canine leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae)犬副流行性感冒(Canine Parainfluenza) 犬冠狀病毒腸炎(Canine Coronavirus Enteritis) 狂犬病(Rabies) 萊姆病(Lyme disease)
根據美國2003年3-4月份動物醫院學會雜誌的報導,只有減毒活毒疫苗藥效可達三年或以上,其他死毒或基因轉值疫苗或細菌性疫苗藥效只有6個月到1年。預防針的施打是在8週齡時開始施打六合一或七合一或八合一,以後間隔2-4週追加一次,直到狗狗4個月大左右,所以一般狗狗會接受大約3次的預防注射,以後每年追加一次,太早施打預防針會受移行抗體影響而失效,犬小病毒腸炎的移行抗體有的可以維持到接近4個月大,所以太早施打抗體可能被中和而無效。

影響預防針效率的因素很多
1. 注射時已感染
2. 移行抗體的干擾(由母奶而來的抗體)
3. 注射時體溫過高過低
4. 免疫系統受抑制
5. 懷孕
6. 營養不良
7. 緊迫
8. 施打類固醇
9. 施打時間間隔錯誤
10. 預防針的賦型劑錯誤
11. 預防針保存不當,停電時間過久沒有冷藏處理或過期
12. 疫苗的病源和感染地區的病源品種不一樣
13. 施打方式錯誤
14. 針筒污染化學物質
15. 預防針暴露過久
16. 預防針的形式(活毒或死毒或基因遺傳工程或病源片段)
因為有醫生看到國外報導提倡只要三年打一次預防針就可以,為了飼主荷包著想,立意不錯,可是有些飼主看了相關文章後無所是從,因為害怕預防針打不夠狗狗生病,另一方面又怕打太多引起所謂的併發症,到目前為止預防針引起的併發症有比較科學研究根據的是貓的預防注射處的纖維癌,至於狗狗沒有相關報告,只有一篇發表於1996年的美國獸醫內科學會的雜誌關於狗打預防針可能引起免疫性溶血的副作用的報導,這篇報導是在27個月內收集發生溶血性貧血的病例有58個,分預防針注射後1個月內(有15隻狗)和預防針注射已超過1個月以上,在注射預防針後產生溶血性貧血的狗血小板比較少,似乎比較容易引起血管內溶血,可是這是推測,沒有證據顯示預防針和溶血性貧血的直接關係,在國外也引起很多臨床醫師的討論和懷疑,因為證據薄弱而且沒有直接證據不足以完全採信,作者在結論也說這篇文章作為打預防針和引起溶血性貧血的暫時性的證據,但是這一篇報導還是引起追加注射預防針的時間的熱烈討論,經過研究和測量抗體,有些機構和醫師建議每3年打一次預防針就夠,但是引起預防針效果和因素太多,國內又無相關研究和檢測,同時國內打預防針的品質氾濫不實,冒然跟進的結果可能是狗狗受害,我的建議是狗狗年輕時最好根據預防針製作廠商的建議每年追加,到中老年後視環境和疾病流行趨勢斟酌把追加時間拉長,這樣可以避免因為打下的預防針無效而追加時間又過久所產生抗體不足的空窗期,至於狗狗預防針的副作用的問題暫時不用擔心,因為沒有直接的文獻供參考證實。
以下附上打預防針可能引起免疫性溶血該篇文章的摘要
J Vet Intern Med 1996 Sep-Oct;10(5):290-5

Vaccine-associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in the dog.
Duval D, Giger U.

Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6010, USA.

Vaccination has been incriminated as a trigger of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in dogs and in people, but evidence to support this association is lacking. In a controlled retrospective study, idiopathic IMHA was identified in 58 dogs over a 27-month period. When compared with a randomly selected control group of 70 dogs (presented for reasons other than IMHA) over the same period, the distribution of cases versus time since vaccination was different (P < .05). Fifteen of the dogs (26%) had been vaccinated within 1 month (mean, 13 days; median, 14 days; range, 1 to 27 days) of developing IMHA (P < .0001), whereas in the control group no marked increase in frequency of presentation was seen in the first month after vaccination. The dogs with IMHA were divided into 2 groups based on time since vaccination: the vaccine IMHA group included dogs vaccinated within 1 month of developing IMHA; the nonvaccine IMHA group included dogs that developed IMHA more than 1 month after vaccination. The recently vaccinated dogs with IMHA (vaccine IMHA group) had significantly lower platelet counts (P < .05) and a trend towards increased prevalence of intravascular hemolysis and autoagglutination when compared with the nonvaccine IMHA group. Similar mortality rates were seen in teh vaccine IMHA group (60%) and the nonvaccine IMHA group (44%), with the majority of fatalities (> 75%) occurring in the first 3 weeks after presentation. Persistent autoagglutination was a negative prognostic indicator for survival in both groups (P < .05). Presence of icterus and hyperbilirubinemia were negative prognostic indicators for survival in the nonvaccine IMHA group (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively) but not in the vaccine IMHA group. In the recently vaccinated dogs, combination vaccines from various manufacturers against canine distemper, adenovirus type 2, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, and parvovirus (DHLPP) were involved in each case. Vaccines against rabies virus, Bordetella spp, coronavirus, and Lyme Borrelia were administrated concomitantly to some dogs. This study provides the first clinical evidence for a temporal relationship of vaccine-associated IMHA in the dog.

影響預防針的因素很多,如果每年都替狗狗追加預防針,那就不必去注意狗狗施打的是何種形式的疫苗,但是當要選擇以每三年追加一次時就需要注意你打的是何種形式的疫苗,可是目前台灣沒有一種混合疫苗是全部活毒減毒疫苗,也就是可能部份是活毒減毒疫苗其他是死毒或基因轉植疫苗或細菌性疫苗,所以建議要以三年追加一次有其困難度,至於狂犬病因台灣非疫區可以在注射晶片時一同施打或第三次的混合疫苗追加後,政府規定每年必須追加一次。
我們無測驗抗體力價施打預防針後是否足夠,如果三年一次,萬一抗體不足而引起疾病,如何向飼主交代,這可能要思考一番,美國研究和報告是在每種情況都考慮的情況下所做的結論,在台灣醫師水準參差不齊,很難確定打下的預防針產生一樣的效果,除非台灣也和美國作一樣的抗體調查再做相同的計畫,以美國動物醫院學會目前的建議,應該分成每三年、每年和不需要施打的預防針,以八合一來說每三年一次的是犬瘟熱、小病毒性腸炎、傳染性肝炎等,其他的每年打一次,一些單獨的疫苗如賈弟邊毛蟲等不需要施打,除非廠商可以把八合一分開,否則很難實行3年或每年一次的預防注射,如果八合一選擇三年一次除了三年一次的其他疾病預防可能就會生漏洞,我感覺每年追加一次還是比較保險。

本文引用自: http://www.royalah.com/

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